Most historians traced back the history of Sambas Sultanas through two historical literary works, Asal Raja-Raja Sambas and Salsilah Kerajaan Sambas. Asal Raja-Raja Sambas (the History of Sambas Kings) dates back hundreds of years ago yet clearer data about the origin of the Arabic-Malay lettered manuscript remains unknown, such as about the writer, the original title, and time and place of the creation (Pabali H. Musa, 2003:50).
Sambas Sultanate has a long history. Its existence is related to a number of other kingdoms, such as Brunei Darussalam, Johor, Sarawak, Sukadana, and Hindu Kingdom Ratu Sepudak, or even Majapahit Kingdom from Java. Broadly, Sambas Sultanate history can be divided into four periods, Hindu Era, Islamic Era, Colonial Era and Post-Independence Era.
a. Old Sambas Kingdom in Hindu Era
Sambas Sultanate is actually a development of Ratu Sepudak Kingdom or also known as Old Sambas Kingdom. This kingdom was subordinate to Johor Sultanate. At that time, Johor Sultanate was on its peak of glory. It controlled a vast area of land and began to match the grandness of Majapahit Empire from Java (Musa, 2003:1).
Johor hegemony over many other kingdoms, thus becoming Majapahit counterpart, is so evident with the fact that Old Sambas Kingdom was previously a Majapahit subject in the era of King Hayam Wuruk (c. 1351-1389 AD) and his prime minister, Mahapatih Gajah Mada. This is stated in Mpu Prapanca’s Negarakertagama, written in 1365 AD (Yudithia Ratih, nd: 62).
The 14th century Majapahit’s Pamalayu Expedition played a big role behind the establishment of Old Sambas Kingdom, which was first ruled by Raden Janur with the capital in an area called Paloh. It started with the arrival of Majapahit men led by Raden Janur in about 1364 AD. After some time of interaction with the local, these men established a new government and enthroned Raden Janur (Ratih, nd: 62).
It went on that the successor of the king was not a Majapahit descendant. Raden Janur did not have a child and passed on his crown to his foster child, Tang Nunggal. The new king was known to be a ruthless person, arousing anxiety in Majapahit about its subject. Therefore after Tang Nunggal passed away, Majapahit recouped the throne of Paloh (Ratih, nd: 62).
In the middle of the 15th century, the seat of government was moved from Paloh to Kota Lama in Benua Bantanan-Tempapan, 36 kilometers west of the now Sambas City. In 1550 AD, the kingdom was led by Ratu Sepudak and later became known as Ratu Sepudak Hindu Kingdom or Old Sambas Kingdom. In ruling the kingdom, Ratu Sepudak was helped by his brother Timbung Paseban (Ratih, nd: 62).
As Islamic influence became stronger in the archipelago, beginning in 1570 AD Mahapahit’s control over Old Sambas Kingdom weakened. On the contrary, Johor Sultanate from Malay Peninsula was in its glorious times. The kingdom began to live its ambition to conquer Majapahit subjects in Sumatra and Kalimantan, including Old Sambas.
b. Establishment of Islamic Sambas Sultanate
The Islamic influence in Old Sambas Kingdom came from Brunei Darussalam Sultanate in the times of Sultan Abdul Majid Hasan (1402-1408 AD). The sultan was childless so that when he passed away in 1408, the throne went to his brother-in-law, Ong Sum Pin, a Chinese descent who had converted to Islam. Ong Sum Pin was the husband of Putri Ratna Dewi, the younger sister of the late Sultan Abdul Majid Hasan. Being a sultan, Ong Sum Pin was given the title of Sultan Ahmad (1408-1425) (Urai Riza Fahmi [ed.], 2003:2).
Sultan Ahmad and Putri Ratna Dewi had a daughter named Putri Ratna Kesuma, who was later married to an Arab nobleman who just came from Mecca, Syarif Ali bin Hasan bin Abi Anami bin Barkat Pancaran Amir Hasan. Some say he was related by blood to Prophet Muhammad. In 1425, Syarif Ali became the Sultan of Brunei Darussalam and was entitled Sultan Barkat (1425-1432), succeeding his father-in-law, Sultan Ahmad (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:2).
Afterwards, the successors of Sultan Barkat were respectively as follows: Sultan Sulaiman (1432—1485), Sultan Bolqiah (1485—1524), Sultan Abdul Kahar (1524—1530), Sultan Saiful Rijal (1530—1581), and Sultan Syah Brunei (1581—1582). Having no children, Sultan Syah Brunei was replaced by his younger brother named Pangeran Muhammad Hasan, entitled Sultan Muhammad Hasan (1582—1589). As for the youngest brother of the late Sultan Syah Brunei, Pangeran Muhammad, he was appointed grand vizier (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:2—3).
Sultan Muhammad Hasan had three sons, namely Pangeran Abdul Jalilul Akbar, Pangeran Muhammad Ali, and Pangeran Raja Tengah. According to Urai Riza Fahmi (2003), it was Pangeran Raja Tengah who later brought forth the future kings of Islamic Sambas Sultanate (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:3). In the 16th century, Pangeran Raja Tengah was renowned as an army commander who conquered many kingdoms that became subjects of Brunei Darussalam. In return of his service, Pangeran Raja Tengah was assigned to govern Sarawak. Becoming Sultan of Sarawak since 1599, Pangeran Raja Tengah was entitled Sultan Ibrahim Ali Omar Syah yet often known as Sultan Tengah (Mawardi Rivai, nd: 2—4).
At that time, Brunei Darussalam Sultanate maintained a good relation with Johor Sultanate, especially through marriage bond, involving Sultan Tengah’s aunt who became the consort of Sultan Abdul Jalil of Johor (1570—1571). Once upon a time, on his way home from Johor to Sarawak, Sultan Tengah’s ship was struck by storm and got stranded in the territory of Sukadana Kingdom in West Kalimantan. Sukadana was a Hindu kingdom ruled by Raja Giri Mustika. Sultan Tengah was welcomed merrily by the kingdom, which was looking forward to establishing a good relationship with the brave sultan.
Syeh Syamsudin, an Islamic teacher who just came back from Mecca, helped Sultan Tengah to convert Raja Giri Mustika along with most Sukadana people to Islam. King Giri Mustika even married Sultan Tengah to his sister, Ratu Surya Kesuma. The marriage resulted in three sons and two daughters, respectively Raden Sulaiman, Raden Badarudin, Raden Abdul Wahab, Raden Rasymi Putri, and Raden Ratnawati (Ratih, nd: 63).
From his aunt, who queen of Johor, Sultan Tengah often heard of Old Sambas Kingdom, which at that time was a subject of Johor Sultanate. In Sukadana, Sultan Tengah became more interested to visit Old Sambas Kingdom. So out set they for Kota Lama, Benua Bantanan-Tempapan, where the kingdom sat.
In Kota Lama, Sultan Tengah entourage was welcomed warmly by Ratu Sepudak. The Old Sambas king had two daughters. The first one was Raden Mas Ayu Anom, who married Pangeran Prabu Kencana, the king’s nephew. The second daughter was Raden Mas Ayu Bungsu.
Upon the permission of Ratu Sepudak, Sultan Tengah then set up a residence in Kota Bangun, a district not far from Kota Lama, the seat of Old Sambas government. Sadly, shortly after Sultan Tengah decided to stay in Sambas, Ratu Sepudak passed away. Pangeran Prabu Kencana stepped up to the throne and was entitled Ratu Anom Kesuma Yuda. Meanwhile, the second daughter of the late Ratu Sepudak, Raden Mas Ayu Bungsu, was married to Sultan Tengah’s oldest son, Raden Sulaiman. Raden Sulaiman and Raden Mas Ayu Bungsu had a son and two daughters, respectively Raden Bima, Raden Ratna Dewi, and Raden Ratna (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:5).
Shortly after Raden Bima was born, that is in 1055 Hijri, Sultan Tengah decided to get back to Sarawak Sultanate he left long. In the meantime, Raden Sulaiman stayed in Old Sambas and was appointed defense and security minister assisted by three officials, namely Kiai Dipa Sari, Kiai Dipa Negara, and Kiai Setia Bakti (Musa, 2003:1).
Further on, there was a dispute involving Raden Sulaiman and Pangeran Mangkurat, nephew of the late Ratu Sepudak. Pangeran Mangkurat felt Ratu Anom Kesuma Yuda was closer to Raden Sulaiman than him, which was a native of the kingdom. The dispute got worse when Kiai Setia Bakti, one of Raden Sulaiman’s assistants, was found killed by supposedly Pangeran Mangkurat’s men.
To prevent internal conflicts, Raden Sulaiman stepped aside to Kota Bangun, in which Sultan Tengah set up a residence when first came to Old Sambas Kingdom. Old Sambas officials heard about Raden Sulaiman leaving. Nagur, Bantilan, and Segerunding were high officials who later convinced Raden Sulaiman to move to a tributary of Subah River and establish a kingdom in Kota Bandir (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:6). Three years on, Raden Sulaiman moved to a tributary of Teberau River, Lubuk Madung before left for Muara Ulakan the estuary of three rivers, Subah, Teberau, and Sambas Kecil (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:6).
In Muara Ulakan, Raden Sulaiman was enthroned as the Sultan of Sambas with the title of Sultan Muhammad Syafiuddin I. Two younger brothers of Raden Sulaiman, Raden Baharudin and Raden Abdul Wahab, were appointed vizier and a high-ranking official and entitled respectively Pangeran Bendahara Sri Maharaja and Pangeran Tumenggung Jaya Kesuma (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:6). With all this, Sambas Sultanate was established in Muara Ulakan, side by side with Old Sambas Kingdom in Kota Lama. It was in Muara Ulakan that Raden Sulaiman built Alwazikhoebillah Palace.
Collection of Sambas Sultanate Royal Palace
c. Union of Two Sambas Monarchs
Historians have not yet reached an agreement about when exactly Raden Sulaiman set up Islamic Sambas Sultanate, although some manuscripts mention 10 Dzu al-Hijja 1040 Hijri as the day of Raden Sulaiman inauguration as the first sultan of Islamic Sambas (Sri Wulan Rujiati Mulayadi, 1994:17).
A number of historians argue on the date of Sambas Sultanate in Gregorian calendar. Machrus Effendy, for instance, believes it to be 1612 while Mawardi Rivai mentions the year 1622. On the other hand, Brunei Malay Historian Awang Al-Sufri says it is in the year 1631 (Musa, 2003:35), the same year brought up by Yudithia Ratih in her writing Istana Alwatzikubillah – Sambas (Ratih, nd: 65). Despite the difference, it can be concluded that Sambas Sultanate was established in about the first decades of the 17th century. About the death of Raden Sulaiman, the founder of the sultanate, Pabali H. Musa says that it happened in 1669 (Musa, 2003:36).
As Raden Sulaiman passed away, the governance of Old Sambas Kingdom was taken over by Ratu Anom Kesuma Yuda until his death. He was then succeeded by his son named Raden Bekut with the title of Panembahan Kota Balai. Later on, the heir of the Old Sambas throne was Raden Mas Dungun, who turned out to be the last king because not long after inaugurated, Raden Mas Dungun handed his territory to Raden Sulaiman who ruled in Kota Bangun (Ratih, nd: 63).
Tracing back its history, Sambas Sultanate is related to Ratu Sepudak Hindu Kingdom/Old Sambas, Sukadana, Sarawak, and Brunei Darussalam Kingdom. To maintain the good family relation, Sultan Syafiuddin I commanded his first son, Raden Bima, to pay a visit to Brunei Darussalam Sultanate, the origin of Sultan Tengah, father of Sultan Syafiuddin I and grandfather of Raden Bima.
Previously, Raden Bima went to Sukadana to see his grandmother, Ratu Surya Kesuma. The ruler of Sukadana at that time, Sultan Zainuddin, was thinking of marrying his younger sister, Putri Indra Kusuma, to Raden Bima. They married and had a son named Raden Milian, born 2 Rabi al-Awwal 1075 Hijri (Musa, 2003:9).
Raden Bima set out for Brunei Darussalam after getting back in Muara Ulakan for a while to meet his parents along with Putri Indra Kusuma and one-year-old Raden Milian. He was welcomed in a cheerful fashion by the royal family of Brunei Darussalam, which was ruled by Sultan Mahyiddin (1673—1690). The sultan even gave Raden Bima an honorary title, Sultan Anum. Besides, Raden Bima also received many other heirlooms of Brunei Darussalam Sultanate which was still used in traditional ceremonies of Sambas Sultanate nowadays (Musa, 2003:9).
Coming back from Brunei, Raden Bima was enthroned as Sultan of Sambas entitled Sultan Muhammad Tajuddin (1668—1708). After his death, his son Raden Milian was crowned and entitled Sultan Umar Akamuddin I (1708--1732). Raden Milian was later succeeded by Raden Bungsu, wearing the title of Sultan Abubakar Kamaluddin (1732—1762). Later on, the Sultans of Sambas until early of the 19th century were Sultan Umar Akamuddin II (1762-1786), Sultan Achmad Tajuddin (1786-1793), and Sultan Abubakar Tajuddin I (1793—1815) (Ratih, nd:64).
d. Sambas Sultanate in Colonial Era
In 1609, the Dutch Colonial Government opened trade with Matan Sultanate in West Kalimantan. From there, they heard about Old Sambas Kingdom under the leadership of Ratu Sepudak. They heard the kingdom was rich with forestal resources and gold. However, it was not until 1 October 1696 that the Dutch, through their representative Samuel Bloemaert, tried to make commercial agreements with Sambas Sultanate which had been converted to Islam by then (Ratih, nd:62).
On 24 July 1812, British army attacked Sambas. The aggression took place while Sultan Abubakar Tajuddin I was on his visit to Sarawak. They managed to cope with the attack however. In 1815, Sultan Abubakar Tajuddin I departed and was replaced by Pangeran Anom entitled Sultan Muhammad Ali Syafiudin I (1815—1828) (Ratih, nd: 64).
Since the end of 1823, the Dutch and British colonial government began talking about the share of colonies in the Malay Archipelago and Peninsula. On 17 March 1824, they signed an agreement known as London Treaty. The treaty basically defined the handover of colonies in the Archipelago from British hands to the Dutch. And on the other hand, Britain had the right over Malacca and all its subjects and also Singapore (Netscher, 2002:465—466). This being stated, Sambas Sultanate again fell into the Dutch hands.
Sultan Muhammad Ali Syafiuddin I died in 1828 and was replaced by Raden Ishak, also known as Pangeran Ratu Nata Kusuma. By that time, Raden Ishak had not come of age so the throne had to be handed to the late sultan’s brother, Pangeran Bendahara Sri Maha Sultan, entitled Sultan Usman Kamaluddin (1828-1830) (Ratih, nd:64). Sultan Usman Kamaluddin died in 1831, giving Pangeran Tumenggung Jaya Kusuma, another brother of Sultan Muhammad Ali Syafiuddin I’s brother, a way to take up the throne. He was entitled Sultan Umar Akamuddin II (1830—1845). When Sultan Umar Akamuddin III passed away on 15 December 1845, Pangeran Ratu Nata Kusuma was coronated and given the title of Sultan Abubakar Tajuddin II (Ratih, nd: 64).
Based on the decree issued by the Dutch East Indies government on 17 January 1848, the oldest son of the reigning sultan, Syafiuddin, was inaugurated as crown heir entitled Pangeran Adipati and sent to Java for school. Having a dispute with the colonial government, Sultan Abubakar Tajuddin II was expelled to Cianjur, West Java, in 1855. The Dutch then enthroned Pangeran Ratu Negara, entitled Sultan Umar Kamluddin (1855—1866) (Ratih, nd: 64).
On 23 July 1861, Pangeran Adipati came back to Sambas after finishing school in Java. He was enthroned on 16 August 1866 and given the title of Sultan Muhammad Syafiuddin II (1866—1922). Under his reign, Sambas Sultanate reached its peak of glory, which materialized with, for example, the construction of Jami Mosque or the Grand Mosque of Sambas in 1877 (Ratih, nd: 64).
Besides building the mosque, in an effort to spread Islamic teachings, Sultan Muhammad Syafiuddin II set up Madrasah Al-Sultaniyah, a religious school. Before that, in 1872, the sultan had established Maharaja Imam as a highest religious institution in the kingdom. To lead the institution, the sultan appointed an ulama named Hajj Muhammad Arif Nuruddin (Muhammad Rahmatullah, 2003:6).
Jami Mosque of Sambas Sultanate
Advancement in intellectual was at its best during the era of Sultan Muhammad Syafiuddin II with the establishments of schools and scholarships for high-achieving students to continue their studies in Egypt or Saudi Arabia (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:37). One of the Sambas sons that pursued his study in Egypt was Muhammad Baisuni Imran (1855—1976) who was later appointed Maharaja Imam in 1913. Due to his thoughts and works, Muhammad Baisuni Imran was considered the carrier of Egyptian reformism views in Indonesia (Erwin Mahrus, 2007:5).
Sultan Muhammad Syafiuddin made Raden Ahmad his crown prince with the title Pangeran Adipati Ahmad. However, Raden Ahmad, who was known to be so insistent on his stance against the Dutch, passed away at a very young age from illness. With the death of Raden Ahmad, Sultan Muhammad Syafiuddin II’s second son, Raden Muhammad Mulia Ibrahim was made the crown prince entitled Pangeran Ratu Nata Wijaya.
When Sultan Muhammad Syafiuddin II felt that he could no longer lead the government while the crown prince had not yet come of age to replace him, the throne was handed to Sultan Muhammad Syafiuddin II’s son from his concubine namely Raden Muhammad Ariadiningrat as sultan ad-interim entitled Sultan Muhammad Ali Syafiuddin II (1922—1926) (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:39).
Sultan Muhammad Syafiuddin II died on 12 September 1924. Then on 9 October 1926, it was Sultan Muhammad Ali Syafiuddin II who died of illness. Because the crown prince was not ready to take up the throne due to his age, it was decided that the government of Sambas sultanate was to be controlled by an institution called Bestuur Comissie, consisting of a number of high officials of the sultanate and representatives of the Dutch East Indies government (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:39).
Crown Prince Pangeran Ratu Nata Wijaya was coronated in 1931 and got his name changed into Sultan Muhammad Mulia Ibrahim Syafiuddin (1931-1943). As the Dutch colonialism in Indonesian Archipelago ended and was replaced by the Japanese military government in 1942, Sultan Muhammad Mulia Ibrahim Syafiuddin summoned the leaders of sultanates in West Kalimantan to unite against the Japanese. The leaders were to meet in 1943. Unfortunately, the Japanese had smelt it already so that they killed all the leaders of the sultanates, including Sultan Muhammad Mulia Ibrahim Syafiuddin.
After the Japanese surrendered to the Allies in 1945, Sambas was again controlled by the Dutch. Their crown prince, Raden Muhammad Taufik entitled Pangeran Ratu Muhammad Taufik, was still a little boy at that time. So the Dutch formed Bestuur Commisie. The Dutch finally recognized Indonesia’s sovereignty on 27 December 1945. It was then that Sambas became part of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia with its capital in Singkawang (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:42). Pangeran Ratu Muhammad Taufik, the crown prince of Sambas Sultanate who had not yet become a sultan, passed away on 3 June 1984 (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:42).
According to Yudithia Ratih in her writing called Istana Alwatzikubillah – Sambas, the genealogy of Sambas sultans are as follows:
Ratu Sepudak Hindu Kingdom/Old Sambas Kingdom:
- Raden Janur (sekitar tahun 1364 M).
- Tang Nunggal.
- Ratu Sepudak (1550 M).
- Pangeran Prabu Kencana bergelar Ratu Anom Kesuma Yuda.
- Raden Bekut bergelar Panembahan Kota Balai.
- Raden Mas Dungun.
Kesultanan (Islam) Sambas:
- Sultan Muhammad Syafiuddin I (1631 – 1668 M)
- Sultan Muhammad Tajuddin (1668 – 1708 M)
- Sultan Umar Akamuddin I (1708 – 1732 M)
- Sultan Abubakar Kamaluddin I (1732 – 1762 M)
- Sultan Umar Akamuddin II (1762 – 1786 M)
- Sultan Achmad Tajuddin (1786 – 1793 M)
- Sultan Abubakar Tajuddin I (1793 – 1815)
- Sultan Muhammad Ali Syafiuddin I (1815 – 1828)
- Sultan Usman Kamaluddin (1828 – 1831)
- Sultan Umar Akamuddin III (1831 – 1845)
- Sultan Abubakar Tajuddin II (1845 – 1855)
- Sultan Umar Kamaluddin (1855 – 1866)
- Sultan Muhammad Syafiudin II (1866 – 1922)
- Sultan Muhammad Ali Syafiuddin II (1922 – 1926)
- Sultan Muhammad Mulia Ibrahim Syafiuddin (1931 – 1943) (Ratih, nd:65). As according to various sources resumed on Wikipedia, after merging with the Republic of Indonesia, the position of sultan still exists in Sambas, yet with authority as the Head of Sambas Sultanate for Domestic Matters. Among the sultans are:
- Pangeran Ratu Muhammad Taufik (1944 – 1984)
- Pangeran Ratu Winata Kusuma (2000 – 2008)
- Pangeran Ratu Muhammad Tarhan (2008 – present) (http://id.wikipedia.org)
Grave of Abubakar Tajuddin I
3. System of Government
Under the reign of Ratu Anom Kesuma Yuda, Old Sambas Kingdom applied a governmental system based on tradition passed through generations, in which the king as the highest authority helped by some ministers on positions called Orang Besar. Among other ministers, there was Pangeran Mangkurat who was the kingdom vizier and whose task included substituting the king in a certain ceremony if the king was ill or unavoidably absent (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:5).
Another minister under Ratu Anom Kesuma Yuda was Raden Sulaiman, who was in charge of the kingdom’s security and defense. Raden Sulaiman later built Islamic Sambas Sultanate. Besides, there were other positions and titles in the governmental system of Old Sambas, such as sida-sida, bentara, and hulubalang, an army commander who worked as the king’s private guard (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:5).
In the inauguration of Orang Besar and high officials of the kingdom, the chosen persons would pledge allegiance to the king. The swearing was also carried out by drinking water from the bath of the royal kris. When somebody broke his vow, it was the kris that would punish him (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:5).
Under the influence of the Dutch East Indies government, Sambas Sultanate no longer had the freedom to control its own government. Any appointment of sultan and crown prince had to be done on the permission of the Dutch. In times when the throne was vacant, the Dutch colonial government had the rights to forming a momentary board of authority called Bestuur Commisie, consisting of Sambas noblemen and representatives of the colonial government.
In 1949, the Dutch officially recognized Indonesia’s sovereignty. Sambas sultanate joined the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia and became a swapraja (autonomous region). Over the time, the seat of Sambas government became the capital of Sambas Regency, West Kalimantan. Being part of Indonesia, the position of sultan was erased and replaced by another position namely, Kepala Rumah Tangga Kesultanan Sambas (Head of Sambas Sultanate for Domestic Matters) until today.
There are many important places related to Old Sambas and Islamic Sambas. (1) Kota Lama, the seat of Old Sambas government in Sekura; (2) Kota Bangun, where Sultan Tengah first built a residence in Sambas; (3) Kota Bandir, an area in the upper course of Subah River where Raden Sulaiman holed up after leaving Kota Lama. In three years, Kota Bandir served as the seat of transitional government, i.e. from Old Sambas to Sambas Sultanate; (4) Lubuk Madung, an area on the tributary of Teberau River which became the first capital of Sambas Sultanate; and (5) Muara Ulakan, the last capital of Sambas Sultanate.
Besides those seats of government of Old Sambas and Islamic Sambas, there are states assumed to have been subjects of Old Sambas/Sambas Sultanate. There are only few, however, because Old Sambas kingdom/Sambas sultanate was at the same time subject of Majapahit, Johor, and the occupying governments of the Dutch and later, the Japanese. Some kingdoms thought to have been vassal states of Old Sambas kingdom/Sambas sultanate are Nagur, Bantilan, and Segerunding (Fahmi [ed.], 2003:6).
Looking at the current geographic and administrative condition, Sambas Sultanate covers the whole part of Sambas District, Sambas Regency, West Kalimantan. Sambas sultanate’s seat of government on the northernmost point of West Kalimantan western coastal area is not the capital of Sambas Regency.
Translation by Reza Daffi
“Kesultanan Sambas”, downloaded on 20 December 2009 from http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kesultanan_Sambas.
E. Netscher. 1870. De Nederlanders in Djohor en Siak 1602 tot 1865. Translated from Dutch to Indonesian by Wan Ghalib dkk. 2002. Belanda di Johor dan Siak 1602 - 1865. Siak: Pemerintah Daerah Kabupaten Siak dan Yayasan Arkeologi dan Sejarah Bina Pusaka.
Erwin Mahrus. 2007. Falsafah dan gerakan pendidikan Islam Maharaja Imam Sambas Muhammad Basiuni Imran (1885–1976). Pontianak: Yayasan Pesisir – STAIN Pontianak Press.
Mawardi Rivai. No date. Peranan Sultan Tengah sebagai tokoh sejarah yang melahirkan hubungan bangsa serumpun dan pengaruhnya di antara tokoh rumpun Melayu lainnya di Kalimantan Barat. A paper for a seminar in Malaysia (not published).
Muhammad Rahmatullah. 2003. Pemikiran fikih Maharaja Imam Kesultanan Sambas Muhammad Basiuni Imran (1885–1976). Pontianak: Bulan Sabit Press.
Pabali H. Musa. 2003. Sejarah Kesultanan Sambas Kalimantan Barat: Kajian naskah asal raja-raja dan silsilah Raja Sambas. Pontianak: STAIN Pontianak Press, Yayasan Adikarya IKAPI, dan The Ford Foundation.
Sri Wulan Rujiati Mulyadi. 1994. Kodikologi Melayu di Indonesia. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia.
Urai Riza Fahmi. 2003. Selayang Pandang Kerajaan Islam Sambas. Sambas: Mutiara.
Yudithia Ratih. “Istana Alwatzikubillah – Sambas”, dalam Istana-istana di Kalimantan Barat. An Inventory of Palaces in West Kalimantan: no date.
Sources of Photos:
Yudithia Ratih. “Istana Alwatzikubillah – Sambas”, dalam Istana-istana di Kalimantan Barat. An Inventory of Palaces in West Kalimantan: no date.
Photos of Alwazikhoebillah Palace, collections of Sambas sultanate, and Jami Mosque on http://wisatamelayu.com.
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Comment of "sambas kingdom"
17 Aug 2010.
menyenangkan sekali bisa mengenal kebudayaan pada masa itu, tapi apa bisa tetap bertahan dalam situasi sekarang
12 Sep 2010.
bagaimana sejarah tentang panglima elang laut?
13 Sep 2010.
coba di ulas tentang sistem kemiliterannya. sampai2 bisa menang mlawan inggris.
20 Marc 2011.
Karno Yuli Arso
BAGAIMANA SEJARAH TENTANG DATANG NYA 3 BERSAUDARA YAITU : "TAN KHAFI, TAN BAIDURI, dan HAJI TAN YUNUS? YANG MAKAM NYA TERLETAK PEMAKAMAN PERIGEK DI DESA KARANGAN (DULU BERNAMA SUNGA (BAHANA-NEK RUMAGA-RAJA KESULTANAN AMANTUBILLAH MEMPAWAH) KECAMATAN MEMPAWAH HULU KABUPATEN LANDAK... KONON KATANYA KE-3 BERSAUDARA TERSEBUT DATANGNYA BERAWAL DARI KESULTANAN SAMBAS DARI KESULTANAN BERUNAI, APAKAH BENAR?
09 May 2011.
tank's to melayu online,.....
17 May 2011.
sy mau ty dmn sy bs mendapatkan literatur sejarah kerajaan hindu sambas (B.Indonesia jk ad), trima kasih...
03 Jun 2011.
dayang salmiah bt awang udin
saya ingin mengetahui,adakah benar wujudnya penjaga istana istana lama di kota lama sambas? saya pernah mendengar kisahnya daripada almarhum ayah saya iaitu awang udin pengiran amit pengiran muhammad..kepada sesiapa yang mengetahui kewujudannya,silakan email saya
01 Feb 2013.
Urai Riza Fahmi
Saya kurang setuju dengan istilah kepala rumah tangga Istana Kesulthanan Sambas mereka itu adalah putra mahkota kesulthanan Sambas pewaris tahta kesulthanan Sambas di Sambas tidak ada Istilah kepala rumah tangga Istana kesulthanan Sambas yang dipegang oleh seorang Pangeran Ratu. Pangeran Ratu adalah gelar untuk Putra Mahkota bukan kepala rumah tangga
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