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Malay history

Malacca Sultanate

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1. The History

a. Founder

Kingdom of Malacca, established by Parameswara around 1380-1403 C.E, was settlements resided by indigenous people from laut ethnic who worked as fishermen. The residents of settlements were about 30 families. Parameswara, a Hindu believer, was Sam Agi King’s son who escaped to Malacca after being defeated by Crivijaya Kingdom. The advance culture of King and his followers made them able to influence the indigenous people. Together with the King, the residents made the settlements as a flourishing city, trade centre, and promising land. The King also taught them skills on planting several plants such banana, spices, and sugar cane. In addition, bauxite was also found by the King.       

The rapid development of Malacca was forced by improving trade relation with other regions including Sumatra Island. Rice, main commodity of trade, was imported from Sumatra land. The dependency of Malacca in rice consumption due to several causes such as traditional technique on harvesting, and geographically strategic position which made Malacca put more focus on trade sector   

There are two versions in association with original name of Malacca. The first version is based on Malay Annals written by Tun Sri Lanang in 1565 C.E. Siam’s attack over Tumasik compelled Parameswara escaped to Muar where he was bothered by lizards. To continue the escape, he moved to several areas: Burok, Senin Ujong and eventually to Bertam River, a place in seashore. In the last place, he was asked by indigenous people to be their King. In a hunt trip, when he sat under the Malaka tree, he saw his dog was kicked by a deer. He was impressed by bravery of the deer. Hence, he named the territory as Malaka (Malacca) inspired by his position under the Malaka tree.   

The second version revealed another opinion as the Malaka originated from Arabic word Malqa, means place for meeting. Malacca was a place where traders from all over the world met and conducted commercial transaction. Besides these two opinions, there are still other versions proliferating among Malacca society

b. Kingdom Politic

Co-existence policy was the ideology of the Sultans in exercising their power. This policy mainly asserted the harmonious life with others side by side which could be seen from diplomatic and marriage relations. This policy was implemented to keep both internal and external security of Malacca. Two big Kingdoms, China and Majapahit, were perceived as the serious threat. Hence, to secure Malacca position, Parameswara established peace relation with these Kingdoms. In addition, he also married to one of Majapahit princess.    

Succeeding Sultans after Parameswara still maintained close relationship with neighbouring Kingdoms. It could be seen in glorious period of Sultan Mansur Syah (1459-1477 C.E) when he married one of Majapahit princess and from sending envoys to China. In 1405 C.E, a messenger from China ‘Ceng Ho’ came to Malacca to ascertain the friendly relationship between China and Malacca. By doing so, Malacca Kingdom was secure from the attack of other Kingdoms.

In 1411 C.E, Malacca King accompanied by his royalties and courtiers: son, wife and ministers visited to China. This group, accounted for 540 people, was welcomed warmly. China Emperor presented gifts, belt, horses, gold, silver, 400.000 kwan (China currency), 2600 of copper, 300 pieces of silk, 1000 pieces of original silk, 2 pieces of clothes made of silk with flower made of gold, to King Muhammad Iskandar Syah. This occurrence showed the close relationship between those Kingdoms, and big appreciation of China to Malacca Kingdom.  

Mansur Syah married to Hang Li Po, prince of Maharaja (king of king) Yung Lo from Ming Dynasty. In the procession of the marriage, Sultan Mansur Syah sent Tun Perpateh Puteh and several groups to China in order to take Hang Li Po to Malacca. Those envoys came to Malacca in 1458 C.E with 500 accompanists.      

Those facts indicated the co-existence policy of Malacca by establishing peace relation with other Kingdoms. In this relation, Navy commandant Malacca Hang Tuah played an important role in keeping the peace between those Kingdoms. It could be said that Hang Tuah position was similar to that of Gajah Mada or Adityawarman. He was often sent to other regions bringing Kingdom missions. His proficiency in mastering several languages such as Keling Language, Siam, and China supported his skill in diplomacy and negotiation

c. Hang Tuah

Hang Tuah was born in Duyung Singkep River. His father was Hang Machmud and mother was Dang Merdu. His parents were lay people who live as farmer and fish catcher.

Hang Tuah Family moved to Bintan Island where he grew up. He studied in Lengkuas hill, East Bintan. In his early age, Hang Tuah had shown his bravery, skill, and understanding in sailing. Together with his four friends; Hang Jebat, Hang Kesturi, Hang Lekir, and Hang Lekiyu, they could cause severe damages on ships of pirates in Riau Islands waters and straits.    

As their bravery, the Sultan installed those people as Kingdom soldiers. Hang Tuah was chosen as navy commandant of the Malacca Kingdom, while the others became soldiers of Malacca. 

There were some titles attached to Hang Tuah since his total services toward the Malacca Kingdom

Esa Hilang Dua Terbilang
Tak Melayu Hilang di Bumi
Tuah Sakti Hamba Negeri

Until now, Malay people still adore Hang Tuah. In addition, his existence becomes a legend. He was buried in his original place Duyung River in Singkep 

d. Malacca as a Centre for Islamic Promulgation

Trade relationship between Arab and China, which was carried out through red sea, had established before the emergence and spread of Islam in Arabic peninsula. The Arabic trade relationship had developed, shown by increasing number of ships and extensive trade activities in the Middle East, as Islam expanded all over the world. 

In the 8th century, many Arabian traders could be found in China especially in Kanton, a well known visited city of traders. In the 9th century, almost every harbour in trade route to China was visited by Islamic traders. In the 11th century, those traders had established strong relationship by conducting marriage with indigenous people. Hence, the Islamic believers increased in the region. However, as the traders were still reluctant to assimilate with the indigenous people, Islamic promulgation did not develop significantly.     

As the flourishing trade destination in east region, Malacca then became the most popular visited Kingdom. Islam developed in Malacca through trade route. The first Malacca King, Prameswara, eventually embraced Islam in 1414 C.E. Hence, Islam became the official religion in the Malacca Kingdom and embraced by many Malacca people.

Afterwards, Malacca developed and became the central for development of Islam in South East Asia and reached the glorious period in Sultan Mansyur Syah (1459-1477 C.E). The development of Malacca related to the development of Islam. Most of conquered territories of Malacca made Islam as the official religion of the Kingdom. Another way to spread Islam effectively was marriage among families. 

The spread of Islam in Java was germane to the existence of Islam in Malacca. Most of Malacca troops who came from Java embraced Islam as their religion. After going back to Java, they supported the process of spread of Islam. Hence, From Malacca, Islam continued spreading in Java, West Kalimantan, Brunei, Sulu, and Mindanau (South Philippine)  

Malacca fell due to Portuguese attack in August 24, 1511 C.E which was commanded by Alfonso de Albuquerque. Most of royalties and courtiers escaped to other regions and Kingdoms.   

2. The Kings of Kingdom

King/Sultan who had ever ruled the Malacca Kingdom are:

  1. Permaisura titled Muhammad Iskandar Syah (1380-1424 C.E)
  2. Sri Maharaja (1424-1444 C.E)
  3. Sri Prameswara Dewa Syah (1444-1445 C.E)
  4. Sultan Muzaffar Syah (1445-1459 C.E)
  5. Sultan Mansur Syah (1459-1477 C.E)
  6. Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah (1477-1488 C.E)
  7. Sultan Mahmud Syah (1488-1551 C.E)

3. The Kingdom Period

After embracing Islam, Parameswara changed his name to Muhammad Iskandar Syah in 1406 C.E and got the title first Malacca Sultan. He married the daughter of Sultan Zainal Abidin from Pasai. The strategic position of Malacca contributed to the fast development of region and becoming one of flourishing trade lines. The Portuguese attack during Sultan Mahmud Syah period, commanded by Alfonso d’albuquerque in 1511 C,E, marked the even of Malacca sultanate.      

Malacca existed in short period about one and half century. However, the history of Malacca was not as short as its period. In 1512 C.E, Sultan Mahmud Syah was supported by Dipati Unus to regain Malacca from Portuguese domination but the attack ended in failure.  Malay Sultan then moved the Kingdom to several areas: Muara, Pahang, Bintan Riau, Kampar, Johor and eventually to Bintan for a second time.

Thus, it can be said that Malacca cannot be separated each other except after the coming of western colonialism that divided the unity of Malay  

4. The Kingdom Territory

During glorious period, Malacca had control over several regions: 

  1. Malay land peninsula (Patani, Ligor, Kelantan, Trenggano, etc).
  2. Riau islands.
  3. East shore of middle Sumatra
  4. Brunei and Sarawak.
  5. Tanjungpura (West Kalimantan).

In addition, there were several other territories which were taken through diplomatic way with Majapahit;

  1. Indragiri.
  2. Palembang.
  3. Jemaja Island, Tambelan, Siantan, and Bunguran.

5. The Kingdom Structure

In the process of collecting data

6. The Socio-cultural Life

In the process of collecting data

Kredit foto : www.hikmatun.wordpress.com

Read : 53.418 time(s).

Comment of "malacca sultanate"

15 Jan 2010. M Saifulman bin Kasan
Saya bersetuju dengan pendapat bahawa Melaka berasal dari perkataan Arab 'Malagha' iaitu pelabuhan. Sebenarnya versi sejarah yang menyatakan melaka berasal dari pokok adalah versi sejarah yang diputarbelit kerana pokok melaka ada nama lainnya yang khusus tapi saya lupa namanya. Setakat ni nama-nama pokok di Tanah Melayu hanya ada satu nama sahaja iaitu berpandukan pada buku lama Melayu. Mana mungkin satu pokok ada dua nama. Saya akan edit kemudian.
07 May 2010. Harris Ananto
Yang hendak saya tanyakan, apakah Hang Tuah Raja di Laut hidup semasa dengan Gajah Mada?
07 May 2010. Harris Ananto
Mohon infonya agar jelas dan Malaka serta Hang Tuahnya tidak dikata orang sebagai khayal,karena muyang saya menurut cerita dari tetua adat kami adalah bagian dari laskar Hang Tuah adakah naskah atau literatur asli mengenai penyerahan daerah Palembang dll secara diplomasi oleh majapahit.
25 Okt 2010. Sang Guna
Salam Harris Ananto, mengikut sejarah melayu karya Tun Sri lanang dan Hikayat Hang Tuah, Iya hang tuah hidup sezaman dgn patih Gajah mada. Melaka pada masa itu dizaman menuju kegemilangan manakala Majapahit sudah mula merosot. malah Patih Gaja Mada sering menghantar perajurit yg handal2 utk menguji kehebatan Hang Tuah sewaktu di jawa dan juga di melaka. sila baca Hikayat melayu dan juga hikayat hang tuah utk lebih info. hang tuah malah pernah berguru dijawa dan bermcm tempat, sebab itulah dia pendekar yg terbilang yg tahu berbagi2 permainan.
09 Aug 2011. Megat Mahmud bin Megat Othman
... tesk sejarah di Malaysia tahun 50an dan 60an ada menyatakan yg Parameswara memeluk Agama Islam dgn pemakaian nama Megat Iskandar Shah ada juga pendapat yg lain Megat Iskandar Shah adalah anak beliau ... minta penjelasan,mengapa sejarah di sini menidakan nama Megat,Kegat ni apakah masaalahnya ya ..........(Walau pun sejarah ini adalah Subjektif tetapi jng menyimpang jauh le )perlu ada kejujuran di sini.Kalau di Malaysia bisa dijajah oleh British sama juga di sana Belanda .... kita jng terikut2 rentak mereka.
17 Sep 2012. KPH. SP. Rheindra J. Wiroyudho
Mohon pencerahannya... Apakah hikayat Hang Tuah tersebut benar adanya dan ada studi pembuktian keabsahannya? Seperti peninggalan berupa tect ataupun yang lainnya?
13 Okt 2012. nuri che shiddiq
Ass. rakan-rakan pecinta, peminat, dan yang sangat ingin belajar sejarah melayu. sebelomnya saya ucapkan salam persaudaraan. untok mulanya seharusnya laman ini harus telah dapat mengkajin pangkal melayu yaitu MALAYU sehingga kerancuan sejarah yang terbata-bata tidak muncul, namun saya maklum karena peneliti di laman ini hanya segelintir saja yang berasal dari melayu asli yang berminat sejarah. jadi jika kita mampu mengulik sejarah melayu jauh lebih kebelakang, maka kita akan jumpa dengan yang disebut JAWAKA atau Orang Yang Mula-Mula Ada, begitu juga dengan arti MALA yaitu yang mula-mula ada. akibat perseteruan antara Raja Sambor dengan Sailaraja/Sailendra "Tuan Orang Gunung", yang membawa perpindahan orang-orang sailendra keselatan ya bisa palembang dan jawa (Bukti candi borobudur dibangun sailendra yang beragama budha). maka terpecahlah satu bangsa ini kini menjadi dua satu membawa nama atas nama JAWAKA dan satu membawa nama MALA yang notabenenya berarti sama. berlanjut berabat lamanya (saya potong saja cerita, ketika nama jawaka semakin kuat maka sebagai legitimasi bahwa kerajaan melayu yang bersinggahsana di singapura juga harus mengasaskan identiti jati dirinya maka mereka menyebutnya MALAKA. namun diantara kita terbata dengan yang ditanamkan penjajah bahwa MALAYU dan JAWA adalah musuh, padahal ANATARA MALAYU DAN JAWA adalah saudara seibu sekandung sedarah. seperti pantun ini RUNTUH KOTA MALAKA PAPAN DIJAWA DIBELAH-BELAH ini menunjukkan kesiapan saudara jawa membagi tanah untuk saudara MALAYU nya. segitu aje dulu ye.. ingat GUNUNG HIKMALAYA SEMENANJUNG MALAYA KEPULAUAN MALAYA TASIK MALAYA Kita semua adalah orang MALA...................
13 Okt 2012. nuri che shiddiq
ketika Kublaikhan ingin menyerang Singosari maka Kartawijaya memerintahkan PIMALAYU = Pergi Ke MALAYU untuk bagun pertahanan, maka di pancanglah SANGSAKA Merah putih di Gunung Bentan sebagai tanda Bukit Bendera, dan diseberangnya Tumasik maka disebutlah SINGA PURA "Gerbang Singa" sebagai gerbang masuk ke SINGOSARI. kublaikhan tak main-main dalam penyerangan kali ini dengan 25 Ribu kapalnya menyerang pertahanan pertama di GERBANG SINGA' maka luluh lantaklah bentan-lingga, Tun Mide yang membantu Raden Wijaya beserta rakyat melayu yang tersisa banyak yang ikut lari ketanah jawa, maka Tun Mide sebagai keturunan Panglima Agong Pantai Timur "MAHASENOPATI" dengan legitimasi bahwa sebuah ikan yang disebut GAJAH MINA dibawah kuasanya, maka kemudian hari MOJO PAHIT "Datang Kepahitan" terbentuk maka bergelarlah ia MAHASENOPATI GAJAH MADE.. dan sejak saat itu kerajaan Melayu tidak menggunakan gelaran MAHASENOPATIH untuk menyebut PANGLIMA AGUNG nya lalu berganti dengan sebutan LAKSMANA namun tetap dengan keturunan yang sama harus keturunan dari PANGLIMA AGUNG PANTAI TIMUR,...wallauaklam

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