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Malay history

Pattani Kingdom

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1. History

Pattani – now Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat – includes into Malay area that is appropriately located in Genting Kra, Thailand. The word pattani refers to Pattani area in the past, before it was divided into three provinces like above. At the golden age of Crivijaya Kingdom, Pattani Kingdom and surrounding small kingdoms in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula were the areas under Crivijaya Kingdom. From seventh century until 13th century, Crivijaya Kingdom held the power of Malacca strait commerce line and gained tax from merchant crossing over the area.

In the 11th century, Islam came to Pattani then was followed by Phya Tu Antara – Pattani King at the time – who changed his name to Syah Zhilullah fi al-Ardl after embracing Islam. His belonging into Islam was led by a priest coming from Pasai, Aceh, namely Sheikh Said.  

In the 13th century, Pattani Kingdom was conquered by Ayuthaya Kingdom. However, the occupation of Ayuthaya Kingdom upon Pattani Kingdom didn`t have any significant influence towards some living spheres of Pattani such as socio-cultural life. In addition, Ayuthaya Kingdom was one of the Buddhist kingdoms bending over the backwards to occupy Malay areas at the time.

In the 14th century, Pattani Kingdom could be free from Ayuthaya`s occupation; indeed, they could develop the kingdom as one of the biggest kingdoms in Malay areas. Almost all of Pattani people had embraced Islam in the 15th century that was followed by the emergence of prominent Islamic scholars settling the area. One of prominent Islamic scholars at the time was Sheikh Daud al-Fattani. As a consequence of Islamic development in Pattani, now the area – Genting kra Province - is separated by two different religions: Islam and Buddhism.

Siam troops (Ayuthaya Kingdom) waged war for the second time in 1785 A.D. Another source states that this attack was the fifth attack of Ayuthaya Kingdom against Pattani Kingdom. Other four attacks were won by Pattani Kingdom. However, this attack was the worst and the longest one from the other attacks of Ayuthaya Kingdom until Pattani Kingdom was vanquished in November 1786 A.D. This shellacking heavily broke down the Pattani`s dignity and the kingdom. Based on a historical note, unarmed Pattani people, including women and children, were kidnapped and murdered before their wealth was seized up, their kingdom was burned down, and the sultanate system was completely eradicated. Finally, Ayuthaya Kingdom declared a new governmental system based on their stances and assigned their people there to rule the surrounding area before coming back to Bangkok while bringing captivation and weapons.

A British Kingdom official named Sir Francais Light who has just arrived at Pinang Island wrote a letter dated on September 12th, 1786 A.D. for Lord Cornwallis in India. He explained about the bloody murder of Siam troops towards Pattani people. Pattani people, whose feet and hands were tied up, were killed by Siam`s elephant fleets.

Based on a book telling Siam`s ferocity on Pattani people entitled Phararachphong Sauwadarn Krung Rattanakosin Rama I was Raja Muda Maha Surasinghnath who ordered that all Pattani`s wealth and weapons to be brought into Siam`s warships then sent Pattani people to some other countries. He also inaugurated Phra Cana – royal official who responsible for Thai-Pattani war – as Chau Muang (governor) in Pattani. He aimed to make Pattani people become lack of foods and forced them to eat sago. 

According to Nurayeen Saleh, Pattani`s shellacking was caused by these factors below –:

  1. Nai Can Tong divulgated Pattani`s defense strategy to Thai war commander. Nai can Tong was the one who was given reliance from the Sultan of Pattani, but later on he was betrayed the reliance.
  2. Death of Sultan Muhammad on the war; it decreased the fighting spirit of the Pattani people.
  3. The overwhelming of Thai warriors with complete weapons.

After along term of war that happened at least five times between Pattani and Siam, in 1826 A.D., the British recognized the authority of Siam upon Pattani. In 1902 A.D., Ayuthaya Kingdom – through Siam troops – violently eradicated the Sultanate system of Pattani Kingdom by publishing Thesaphiban policy, threatening the dignity of Pattani Kingdom. These all – based on British Kingdom`s consulate in Songkhla, W.A.R. Wood – were the consequences of misgoverned system applied by Ayuthaya Kingdom through Siam armed forces.

As a response to the trouble and deterioration of Pattani under the rule of Siam, Tengku Abdul Kadir Kamaruddin, ex-king of Pattani Malay Kingdom, led an attack against the government to set Pattani people free from the long term of Siam`s ferocity. The attack which was headed directly by Tengku Abdul Kadir Kamaruddin occurred for along time, evoking poor condition.

Pattani Kingdom under the rule of Siam on the tenure of Phibul Songkram (1939 – 1944 A.D.) has made a great revolution on some spheres of Pattanese life by establishing Thai Ratanium policy. It was a policy assuming that Thailand was just for Thai people. He did everything to eradicate Malay identity on Pattani people by altering fundamentally Malay and Arabic letter to Thai letter. Even more, Muslim people in Pattani were also coerced to deify statues, and worship them.

When the Second World War broke out, Siam was on the side of Japanese. It was Tengku Mahmud Muhyiddin, the son of Pattani ex-King, who sent a petition to British Kingdom in India for taking over and unifying the Pattani Kingdom into Malay Peninsula on behalf of his position as British Major Military Commander on November 1st, 1945 A.D. Together with other Pattani`s significant figures, he demanded four areas in the south of Siam to be free from Siam`s authority and merged into Malay Peninsula. Considering the dependence of Pattani on the rice stock from Siam, British Kingdom kept on their stance that was to encourage Siam`s occupation upon Pattani by signing treaty in 1909 A.D. The treaty contains territorial border between Siam Kingdom and Malay Peninsula (now Malaysia and Thailand).

2. Kings of Kingdom

Below is the list of Pattani Kings who had ever held the power in Pattani:

  1. Sultan Mudhaffar Syah (1540 A.D.)
  2. Sultan Manzur Syah (1564 – 1572 A.D.)
  3. Sultan Patik Siam (1572 A.D.)
  4. Sultan Bahdur (1573 A.D.)
  5. Queen Raja Ijau (1584 A.D.)
  6. Queen Raja Biru (1616 A.D.)
  7. Queen Raja Ungu (1624 A.D.)
  8. Queen Raja Kuning (1636 A.D.)

3. Kingdom Period

Despite of peace and prosperity, some conflicts – internal or external – and some usurpation also colored the history of Pattani. A bloody conflict had ever happened after the death of Sultan Manzur Syah in 1572 A.D. On this conflict, all of the male inheritors of Pattani King were murdered. As a consequence, Pattani Kingdom that was headed by a king was replaced by queen with the first queen was Queen Raja Ijau (1584 A.D.). She had successfully planned her younger sister, Queen Raja Biru, as the next queen who would rule the Pattani Kingdom followed by Queen Raja Ungu and Queen Raja Kuning.

Nicholas Gervaise – French traveler – noted that those Queens only hold symbolic authority. On his note dated in 1860 A.D., he assumes that the real authority of Pattani Kingdom was on the royal officials. The authority of the queens was limited by royal ministers by publishing a regulation that the queen was not allowed to enter some rooms within the palace. It signed that the queen had no superior power in controlling her own kingdom. However, one question still remains, how come Queen Raja Ijau – who had no superior power – was able to planned the next queens? Such assessment above seems as sole wrong assessment since Queen Ratu Ijau could still decide Queen Ratu Biru to be the next queen of Pattani Kingdom. Hence, we may conclude that royal ministers were not able to defeat the power of Queen Ratu Ijau who had great power to rule Pattani Kingdom.

During the tenure of Queen Raja Ungu, Pattani Kingdom strictly banned any kind of relationships with Siam (Thailand). Moreover, her people lived in prosperity. Otherwise, her daughter, Queen Raja Kuning built relationships with Siam and visited Siam in 1641 A.D. instead. Her visit to Siam was cordially welcomed by Prasat Thong King. However, on her tenure, Pattani Kingdom got its golden age where Pattani Harbor was fully loaded by international merchant and flickering lamps around.

Unfortunately, in 1651 A.D. she was forced by Sakti King from Kelantan Sultanate to abdicate. She would like to move to Johor but she passed away in Kampung Pancor, Kelantan, before arriving at Johor. After her death, trouble and conflict occurred for twice since the usurpation among her inheritors. Such dilemmatic condition then led Pattani Kingdom to ruin and was conquered by Ayuthaya Kingdom (Siam) in the middle of 17th century. Therefore, Pattani people were forced to send “Bunga Mas” as a symbol of their obedience to Siam.

4. Kingdom Territory

Pattani Kingdom`s territory encompassed Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat (Great Pattani).

5. Kingdom Structure

The superior power within the Kingdom is held by a king who is assisted by royal ministers. Such governmental system was also used by other Malay Kingdoms.

6. Socio-culture Life

The history of Pattani people consisted of war and peace happening in turn. However, socio-cultural life of Malay people in Pattani could not be influenced by such situation. Art performance and traditional plays such as Makyong, mengarak burung, congkak, Malay Shadow Puppet, and nobat traditional music could still develop amongst them. Moreover, Buddhist traditional play called menora – wherein ritual, song, and drama are there – was also favorable amongst Muslim people in Pattani. Some traditional music instruments such as serunai, nafiri, and rebab can be found among the Pattani people. Their resistance against injustice is expressed on local folksong namely dodoi. Below some part of dodoi song`s lyric;

Buah perah buah berangan
Nak taruh dalam timba
Nak geruh batak tangan
Nak lepas gajah gila

Gajah gila bidu
Lupa tiga dian
Semalam ambo tak tidur
Pasai Ambo tengok wayang

Wayang balik pintu
Topeng balik dinding
Zaman musuh Siam
Kami tak ada lagi

(NI/ter/07/05-08)

Photo credit: www.forum.cari.com.my

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Comment of "pattani kingdom"

15 Jan 2010. M Saifulman bin Kasan
Untuk pengetahuan, kerajaan Ayuthaya adalah kerajaan Islam Siam yang meliputi Thailand, Laos, Kemboja, sebahagian Burma, Pattani dan meliputi Tanah Melayu hingga ke Singapura. Kejatuhan kerajaan Pattani pada 1786 juga merupakan juga kejatuhan kerajaan Ayuthaya iaitu diserang kerajaan Thai Budhha (bukan kerajaan Ayuthaya).
12 Okt 2010. saltin
Kerajaan melayu patani yg dianeksasi oleh thailand pada thn 1902 tidak hanya meliputi 3 propinsi (pattani,yala dan narathiwat) akan tetapi meliputi 5 propinsi yaitu satun dan sebagian songkhla.
22 Aug 2013. Ahmad Hartono
Pembahasan kehidupan sosial budaya Pattani agar bisa lebih diperluas lagi.

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